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This ESI study adds to a growing body of evidence that points to widespread market distortions in global steel markets. In order to deal with the adverse consequences of cross-border cartels, closed markets, and subsidies, the U.S. industry and its workers have turned to U.S. trade laws. Yet these laws are currently facing an assault from the very governments that maintain non-competitive market structures in their home countries. As long as those structures exist, the U.S. steel industry will remain vulnerable to severe supply shocks resulting from the poor economic performance of other countries. Until there is clear progress toward eliminating market distortions, it makes sense for the United States to resist efforts to weaken U.S. trade laws.